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Pesticidi: ieri, oggi

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Prodotti naturali, poco ingegnerizzati, sono utilizzati da tempo come repellenti sicuri contro afidi, lumache, cimici, zanzare od altri parassiti.

Seguiamo le orme già tracciate: la mancanza di attenzione su tale tematica ci ha portato a percorrere sentieri particolarmente tortuosi.

Impiego di mezzi come macchine, trattori e aerei per spargere insetticidi sui campi coltivati.
Ieri.

La parola “pesticidi” sta a rappresentare una vasta gamma di prodotti utilizzati per controllare organismi considerati dannosi agli interessi umani, come lo possono essere gli insetti con cui competiamo per le fonti di cibo.

I primi ad essere vittima di questi prodotti furono gli uomini stessi: i primi pesticidi elaborati in laboratorio, sterminarono numerosi uomini durante la Grande Guerra.

Il loro impiego sproporzionato portò una biologa marina, Rachel Carson, alla stesura di uno dei libri-cardine della seconda metà del secolo scorso.

“Silent spring” (Primavera Silenziosa), in sintonia con saggi e report, pose le fondamenta dell’ambientalismo.

Il Malathion è usato negli shampoo per bambini in caso di infestazione di pidocchi.

Vi si racconta di insetticidi ed erbicidi, come il DDT, che decimò popolazioni di uccelli, da cui il nome del libro; del clordano e dell’arsenico che danneggiarono animali selvatici. Altri animali, da allevamento e di compagnia, oltre che insetti vitali come le api, perirono in massa. La causa furono: BHC, landano, l’aldrina, eptacloro ed altri composti, tra cui insetticidi organici a base di fosforo come Malathion e Parathion.

Oggi.

Impiegando gli insetticidi si agisce sulle trasmittenti nervose: esse rivestono completamente gran parte degli insetti, e rimangono attive provocando spasmi fino alla morte nei piccoli organismi.

Amanita Muscaria, il cui nome è dovuto al preparato creato contro le mosche, ha proprietà neuroattive.

Un effetto simile è provocato da un fungo.

Tali effetti funesti non si limitano agli insetti: i pesticidi si accumulano in terreni, piante e falde acquifere, per giungere all’organismo umano. Per ingestione, inalazione o anche solo per contatto entrano nel nostro organismo finendo per depositarsi nei grassi e negli organi adibiti allo smaltimento delle tossine.

Le diverse nazioni hanno stabilito soglie di tolleranza per i pesticidi: per ognuno di essi sono stabilite soglie di tossicità in ppm. Lo scopo è di prevenire avvelenamenti, squilibri ormonali, reazioni allergiche presentate fin da bambini, e tendenze a sviluppare tumori. Questi sono effetti generati da un loro progressivo accumulo nel nostro organismo.

Il sentiero percorso coi pesticidi è stato fondamentale per i feedback ricevuti dopo il loro impiego. Abbiamo compreso ancor di più la possibilità di influenzare e condizionare la vita.

Le retroazioni di tali prodotti ci fanno presente la terza legge della dinamica, “ad ogni azione corrisponde una reazione uguale e contraria”.

Ora utilizziamo metodi meno dispendiosi in energia che hanno lo scopo di non gravare eccessivamente sull’equilibrio terrestre. Stiamo impiegando entità già presenti in natura per svolgere funzioni in loro intrinseche.

Le proprietà di piante ed animali, oltre che microrganismi, sono sfruttate dall’uomo per poterci essere utili nell’ordine della nostra vita sulla Terra.

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